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Report代寫:完美撰題的八大原則

Dueduedue官方博客?2018-03-19?report代寫? 1485? 0?A+A-

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原則一:了解研究報告題目Understand the assignment

When a professor assigns a paper to a class, the implicit understanding is that a student will produce a paper in harmony with the assignment. The submitted paper may or may not be competently researched and well-written, but at the very least it is expected to be in the assigned area of research. Yet instructors still are disappointed to receive papers on, say, William Shakespeare's classic family tragedies when the assignment was on the Bard's sonnets.

教授指派報告時,通常預期學生的文章必須切合作業題旨。無論學生繳交的文章是否研究周詳、寫作優美,起碼必須符合指定的研究領域。不過,如果教授指派的作業是莎士比亞的十四行詩,收到報告卻討論他的經典家庭悲劇,這份報告還是達不到標準。

Researching and writing a paper that almost meets the assigned criteria isn't good enough. Professors are the experts in their disciplines and in their classrooms. They are familiar with the many facets of a subject. They intentionally assign papers on one slice of a broader subject in the expectation that students will examine that slice in some depth. When a student chooses to write on another facet of the subject, it not only is disappointing, it portends a failing grade.

研究與寫作報告不能只求差強人意。教授是該學科的專家,也很了解班上的學生。教授對一個主題的諸多面向知之甚詳,如果有意從廣泛的主題中指定一個面向研究,表示期望學生深入探討此面向。學生如果轉而研究主題的另一個面向,作業不但達不到標準,成績大概也不及格。

Sometimes the fault lies with a professor for not clearly laying out the assignment. Sometimes it is the student who fails to grasp an assignment and to question it. As Cool Hand Luke famously said, “What we've got here is a failure to communicate .” But ultimately it is the student who will suffer the most when such confusion occurs, so it is the student who must clear away the confusion before proceeding. Always know the assignment before beginning to fulfill it.

有時候教授沒有把題目解釋清楚,有時則是學生沒有領會題目,也沒有問清楚,就像《鐵窗喋血》電影中的對白:「我們溝通不良」。但說到底,如果厘不清狀況,受罪的是學生,所以學生在開始寫報告前一定要先厘清題目。記住,開始進行撰寫前,務必確實了解作業題目。

原則二:確認研究報告的主題范圍Clearly identify the parameters of an assigned topic

This suggestion is closely related to the first one, which was to understand an assignment. But rather than dealing with miscommunication between student and instructor, this suggestion has to do with a writer's judgment. Case in point: A clear-thinking student in a culinary curriculum who is assigned an academic paper on tuna should ultimately conclude that a paper on the health benefits of tuna salad is more appropriate than a paper on the economics of tuna fishing.

上周提到的原則一是了解研究報告的題目,原則二與原則一有關,但不是處理師生溝通不良,而是與作者的判斷有關。舉例來說,如果讀烹飪的學生要寫一份與鮪魚有關的學術文章,清楚思考后,應該知道比起討論鮪魚捕撈的經濟,更適合討論鮪魚沙拉對健康的好處。

Yet professors are regularly surprised by topical tangents. Students sometimes ending up fishing for good grades in strange and irrelevant places. Unfortunately for them, the result is a marked-down paper. This doesn't mean that instructors don't appreciate writers who bring fresh ideas and subjects to a topical mix. Willingness to stretch a topic is an indication of intellectual heft and confidence. But stretch a topic too far and usually it will collapse into irrelevancy.

即使如此,教授還是經常收到文不對題的報告。有些學生想獲得好成績,報告內容卻莫名其妙又與主題南轅北轍,當然就拿不到好成績。教授并不是不欣賞學生在題目中整合新鮮的想法與主題,愿意擴展題目展現了學生的學術能力與自信;但若是擴展太遠,往往因為離題而寫出失敗的文章。

A general guideline to follow in evaluating the relevancy of a subject is to work outward from the core. If the assigned topic is tuna, for example, a concentric line of reasoning might go like this: Tuna – Fresh / Canned – Properties of canned tuna in water / oil – Albacore vs. Pacific bluefin – Mercury vs. low fats – Protein content – Tuna hash vs. Grilled tuna – and so on. While the process can go on for some time, it should end well before Charlie the Tuna is considered.

評估主題是否相關有一條通則,就是寫作時從核心向外探索。舉例來說,如果題目是鮪魚,思考論證的同心圓邏輯應該是:鮪魚-罐頭或新鮮鮪魚-水煮與油漬鮪魚的特性-長鰭鮪魚與太平洋藍鰭鮪魚-含汞量與低脂肪-蛋白質含量-鮪魚馬鈴薯或煎烤鮪魚…等等。諸如此類的清單可以延伸下去,但如果討論到鮪魚罐頭品牌的卡通吉祥物 Charlie the Tuna ,就表示你離題太遠啦。

原則三 留意潛藏在教材與其他地方的研究主題Be alert to potential topics in course material and elsewhere

Sometimes the perfect topic is perfectly hidden … right under your nose. When an assignment is given in a class, the tendency is to focus on the assignment as if it exists separate from the rest of your intellectual activity. Not true. Assignments do not occur in vacuums. They are part of what is going on around you in the class—and outside the class. All knowledge is part of the same intellectual continuum; the sooner this is understood, the fuller a learning experience becomes.

有時候最棒的研究題目藏在最意想不到的地方-就藏在你的眼皮底下。一般人常把教授出的作業和其他研究分開來看,殊不知作業并不是單獨存在。作業不僅與課堂上的一切有關,也與課堂外的一切有關。所有學問都屬于一個連續的知識體系,早點明白這個道理,才能讓所學更為完整。

So the first place to begin a search for a topic is in the class material itself. Lectures. Textbooks. Laboratory or field experiences. Even conversations with classmates contain the seeds of ideas. This might seem to be a superfluous suggestion, yet too many students turn off their minds when the class bell rings, or a formal discussion period ends. Learning to listen engagingly at unstructured times and to critically explore material in depth will help the topic search.

因此,首先可以從課堂教材尋找研究主題,無論是授課內容、教科書、實驗或研究過程都能多加探索,班上同學的對話討論也可能成為靈感來源。這個建議聽起來或許有點多余,但許多學生往往下課鈴一響,正式討論時間一結束,就把研究心思關起來。如果能學會在平日就積極聆聽,認真、深入探索教材內容,對尋找研究題目一定助益良多。

The other great place to look for topical revelation is in wholly unrelated reading material. Almost regardless of how specialized a research assignment is, valuable insight can be gleaned from general circulation publications. Sometimes a popular writer's approach to a completely different subject can suggest a new academic approach. Or a word might jump out that sparks fresh thinking. The world is awash with ideas. Splash around in it and see what you can find.

與研究無關的讀物是另一個尋找研究題目的好地方;不論研究領域多專門,幾乎都可以在一般讀物里尋獲寶貴的洞見。有時發現暢銷作家處理完全不同主體的方法,可進而助于找出新的學術研究方法;有時某個詞匯突然跳出來,也能激發新鮮的想法。世上充斥著各式各樣的想法,探索世界,你一定能有所收獲。

原則四 保持心胸開放 Keep an open mind

This suggestion really shouldn't be necessary. An open mind should be a chief characteristic of any writer laboring in the academic field. The whole purpose of academia is to learn and, in the learning, to expand the body of knowledge that undergirds understanding and progress. Learning is stifled by barriers to learning; the most insidious of these is the closed mind. So in searching for a research topic, an academic writer should be open to virtually all possibilities.

心胸開放是學術領域作者應有的基本特質,本來不必特別提出。學術研究就是為了學習,并在學習過程中擴展整體學識、增進理解與推動進步。阻礙學習的因素很多,其中最隱而不顯的障礙就是保守封閉的思想。所以學術作者尋找研究主題時,應該對所有可能保持開放。

One of the indicators of openness is the capacity for surprise. When a mind is partly or entirely shuttered, it is less receptive to peripheral flashes of insight. It is so focused on a preconceived agenda that it simply doesn't sense glancing inspiration. A writer open to inspiration is more apt to be startled by a new thought, which might enter his mind through an unrelated conversation. Such revelations are the direct result of a person's willingness to be surprised.

開放的思想有項指標,就是能體悟到出人意表之處。如果思想保守或完全封閉,即使隱約有所體悟,也很難好好把握。太執著于預定的步驟,腦海里就沒有空間容納轉瞬即逝的靈光。寫作時若能敞開心胸、擁抱靈感,就更容易受新思想啟發,從無關的對話中采擷新的看法。愿意接納新奇的想法,就能直接受益。

The rest of the story is how a surprising idea is handled. A closed-minded person dismisses such an idea because it disrupts his ordered mindset. An open-minded person muses upon it. Explores it. Evaluates it. Weighs it. Only then might the person drop the idea because it is found to be wanting or, better yet, to abandon it in favor of yet another idea spawned by the first one. The beauty of openness is that it is expansive in nature. Growth and learning are the natural results.

除了察覺新奇的想法,還要知道如何運用。心態保守的人對新的想法不屑一顧,害怕這種想法會擾亂他們規規矩矩的思考方式。心態開明的人則會潛心鉆研,探索、評估、權衡新的想法,判斷這個想法是否有所不足,再將之放下;或是從中衍生另一個新的思想,所以拋棄原先的想法,這種情況更理想。開放的心態本身廣闊無垠,自然有助學習與成長。

原則五 判斷主題的深度和廣度 Determine the depth and breadth of a possible topic

This suggestion might seem to put an extra burden on a writer, but the opposite is the case. Nothing is more difficult than to write in depth on a topic that is shallow. Nothing is more challenging than to write substantively about a subject that is transparently simplistic. In such cases, writers resort to setting up straw arguments, belaboring the obvious, and larding the paper with adjectives, adverbs, general wordiness, and sometimes the kitchen sink and cabinetry.

這個建議聽起來似乎讓作者又多了一份負擔,然而實際上剛好相反。寫作研究報告時,最困難的莫過于深入分析一個膚淺的主題,最痛苦的莫過于嚴肅討論一個簡單不過的題目。如果執意這么做,只能言不及義、滿紙空話,東加一個形容詞、西添一個副詞,文章多半冗長空洞,甚至瑣碎平庸。

Know thy topic—but not too quickly. If a writer can instantly see how to proceed with writing about a possible topic, the topic probably is too facile to seriously consider. Genuinely complex topics for a paper are not that transparent. They are too deep to have their bottoms seen. They hide undercurrents of information that only can be discovered by diving into them. On the other hand, sometimes they are too deep for a paper. Discerning a topic's depth is important.

寫作要了解主題,但不要急于一時。如果能立刻看出主題的寫作方向,表示此主題可能太為淺顯,不值得深入探究。真正復雜、適合寫研究報告的題目通常無法輕易看透,其內涵深不可測,只有深入探究才能發現其中蘊含的訊息。然而,有時候主題卻太過深奧,不適合寫研究報告。因此判斷主題的深度是非常重要的。

The other important dimension to consider is breadth. A topic worth writing about should have wide enough application to have value beyond whatever grade is earned by its writer. For example, the pin oak tree might be too narrow a biological topic unless one incorporates the tree's migration to Australia. On the other hand, as with depth, a topic can be too broad to be addressed in a paper. A thorough survey of depth and breadth is key in any topic selection.

此外也應考量題目的廣度,值得探討的題目應該能廣泛運用,除了可以讓作者拿到分數,應該還有其他價值。例如,單純以針櫟樹為主題范圍可能太狹窄,但可以將討論結合針櫟樹如何遷徙到澳洲。此外,就像題目可能太深奧,同樣也可能太廣泛而不適合寫研究報告。選擇主題前,切記徹底了解題目的深度與廣度。

原則六 力求主題創新Strive for originality in a topic

The old saying is that there is nothing new under the sun. Even sayings are old. It is true that the first writer of an academic paper could choose from a longer list of unwritten-about topics than is possible to find today. Consequently, a search now for an original topic is much longer. In fact, a wholly original subject might not exist, depending upon the discipline. Still, enough nuances do exist to allow today's writers to bring fresh perspective to a topic, and that is sufficient.

俗話說,太陽底下沒有新鮮事,不過這些俗話也不新鮮了。確實,比起現在的研究者,初期的研究者有更多從未研究過的題目可以選擇,因此現在想尋找創新的題目,必須花更長的時間,有些學門甚至可能完全缺乏原創的題目。不過,題目間還是有些細微的差異,可以讓現在的研究者為主題帶來新意,而這樣就足夠了。

The first rule in the search for an original topic is that a writer must want to find one. While a student's willingness to tiresomely revisit a tired subject will satisfy an assignment, it will not land the student a grade in the upper echelon of scores. Those are reserved for fresh thinkers. So in considering a topic, examine it from the standpoint of (1) how often it has been addressed and (2) how much fresh insight is possible this time around. If it fails this freshness test, drop it.

尋找原創主題的第一守則,就是你要愿意去找。學生寫作業時,如果不厭其煩地討論一個老掉牙的題目,或許可以交差,但分數大概不會太高。只有想法新穎,才能拿到好成績。所以思考題目時,可以從兩個觀點來檢驗:第一,這個題目是否常常討論?第二,這次討論是否能帶出新穎的見解?如果從這個小測試里,發現題目毫無新意,那么最好放棄。

Selection of a topic gives a professor a glimpse of the character of a student. Academic writers are first of all academic thinkers whose brains are attuned to challenge, discovery, and the search for information that expands the common base of knowledge. Any student unwilling to put real effort into this process is only loitering in the academic realm, rather than establishing himself there. A serious search for original material is one of the defining markers of a serious student.

教授從學生選的題目里,可以大概了解學生的個性。學術研究者的思考會表現出學術特質,偏好挑戰、追求新發現、熱衷于尋找資訊以擴展知識的基礎。不愿真正投入這個過程的學生,只是在學術圈胡混,不會有所建樹。嚴謹地尋找原創題目的材料,才是認真學生的寫照。

原則七 勇敢探索學科的邊緣領域Don’t be afraid to explore the edge of a subject

As in the previous guideline about an original topic, this suggestion is about how to make a paper distinctive from hundreds of similar papers. The recommendation is to look toward the edges of a subject where previous researchers have been reluctant to explore. After all, while plowing the same ground sometimes turns up new topical material, an aspiring researcher is very likely to find fresher, more compelling information by turning over rocks on the edge of the field.

這項守則類似前一項「力求主題創新」守則,都能讓論文從數百篇類似的文章中脫穎而出,而方法就是關注學科的邊緣領域,探索過去研究者未加探究的主題。在同一塊領域鉆研,或許有時能發現新的主題,但是若研究者充滿抱負,在邊緣領域不懈地耕耘,或許能發現更新鮮、更有說服力的資訊。

Working the edges of a subject doesn't lessen the value of a paper. Content is king regardless of where it is found. Relevancy is not related to how central a topic is, but how it contributes to the overall understanding of a subject. For example, everyone might know that a minor emperor was a stout man, yet no one know that he secretly wore a padded cummerbund to enhance his girth, believing it befit his rank. Such revelation can introduce new psychological perspective.

論文的價值不會因為主題較邊緣而減少,因為不管資料從哪里發現,內容才是重點。論文的價值無關主題是否為學科重心,重點是能否促進了解整體學科。例如,多數人都曉得minor emperor是不具影響力的君王,即使他會暗地里配戴有填充物的寬腰帶增加腰圍,想借此與他的地位相襯,世人也不覺得重要或值得探究。其實,像這類人們口中所謂的「小事」,若深入去研究,反而說不定能找到特別的新發現,對于心理學研究者而言,這樣的發現或許有機會引入新的心理學觀點。

Looking to the edge of a subject for new topical material is not the same as being edgy, though being edgy is OK. Edgy might be defined as flirting with irrelevancy by looking “way out there” for a topic. The key is not to drift so far from a core subject that one loses sight of an assignment. Professors are not amused by such independence. Nevertheless, one should feel free to explore the entire range of a subject, hither and yon, with an open mind about what you discover yon .

探索學科的邊緣領域,尋找新的主題,不代表就是急躁,雖然急躁也沒什么不好。另一方面,急躁也可說是尋找主題時「扯太遠」,沒有認真思考主題是否適切。關鍵是拿捏得當,勿過度偏離學科核心,導致無法掌握作業主旨。教授不會喜歡你離題太遠的。然而,你還是可以任意探索整個學科范圍,毋須設限,并用開放的心態看待彼處的發現。

原則八 尋找耐人尋味、有啟發力的題目Find a topic that is intriguing or can teach

In choosing a research paper topic, a writer should make a genuine effort to find one that forces him to learn something. This rule is a tough one for someone who already knows it all. For the rest of us, it applies. A familiar topic not only is more likely to have been beaten to death by previous writers, it is apt to produce nothing new. Whereas an intriguing topic will spur a curious researcher to dig, and the writer's evident conviction will come through in the paper.

選擇研究論文題目時,應該竭力尋找能讓你從中學習的題目。這條原則對于已對主題知之甚詳的人來說不容易,卻很適合其他人。常見的題目可能已經由前人徹底討論過,也不容易有新意,而耐人尋味的題目能驅使富求知欲的研究者深入探索,在整篇論文中清楚展現研究決心。

Obviously, a writer can be too ambitious. Even when preliminary research indicates a plethora of sources are available on a topic of genuine interest, the time allowed to plumb them all might be too short. Or the complexity of a multi-layered topic might preclude handling the topic in a single paper. So finding a possible topic to be interesting is only good to a point; it also must be a topic that is suitable for encapsulating in a research paper of finite length.

當然,研究者也可能野心太高。即使初步研究顯示你感興趣的題目有非常豐富的資料,也可能時間不足,無法一一探究;也可能題目層次豐富,較為復雜,無法在單篇論文中討論清楚。所以題目除了有趣,也必須適合在篇幅有限的論文中討論。

In short, daring to delve into unfamiliar territory is a test of one's desire to produce a paper of worth. It is an indicator of the mindset of an academic writer. Unwillingness to explore and to risk failure in a quest for learning suggests that a writer is a poseur. The cachet of scholarship and academia—and, of course, the incredible benefit of knowledge—is enviable, but the prestige comes from hard work and exemplary conviction. In other words, the title “scholar” is earned.

簡言之,勇于鉆研不熟悉的領域,可以考驗一個人是否真的想寫出有價值的論文,展現學者的氣度。在求知過程中,不愿意潛心鉆研、忍受失敗,表示研究者不過是裝腔作勢。在我們羨慕學者的名聲,及知識的無盡好處時,別忘了這些威望來自勤勉為學,以及足為典范的研究心志。可以說,學者的名號是奮斗的果實。

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